eulytics is a corporate image project for a pharmaceutical company developed and designed by Alessandro Marelli logo in black and white color and negative. eulytics A brand (or marque for car model) is a name, term, design, symbol or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. eulytics Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising. Initially, livestock branding was adopted to differentiate one person’s cattle from another’s by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. eulytics In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands carefully to create shareholder value, and brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a money value to a brand, and allows marketing investment to be managed (e.g.: prioritized across a portfolio of brands) to maximize shareholder value. eulytics Although only acquired brands appear on a company’s balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value. The word “brand” is often used as a metonym referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. eulytics Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. eulytics A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word “brand” derives from the Old Norse “brandr” meaning “to burn” – recalling the practice of producers burning their mark (or brand) onto their products. The oldest generic brand, in continuous use in India since the Vedic period (ca. 1100 B.C.E to 500 B.C.E), is the herbal paste known as Chyawanprash, consumed for its purported health benefits and attributed to a revered rishi (or seer) named Chyawan. This product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent. The Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps, hallmarks and silver-makers’ marks are all types of brand. Although connected with the history of trademarks and including eulytics earlier examples which could be deemed “protobrands” (such as the marketing puns of the “Vesuvinum” wine jars found at Pompeii), brands in the field of mass-marketing originated in the 19th century with the advent of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, extending the meaning of “brand” to that of a trademark. Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the world’s first trademark. Tate & Lyle of Lyle’s Golden Syrup makes a similar claim, having been recognized by Guinness World Records as Britain’s oldest brand, with its green-and-gold packaging having remained almost unchanged since 1885. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks (as found in Saint Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City) with the same proto-logo since 1731. Cattle-branding has been around for a long time. The term “maverick,” originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, whose neglected cattle often got loose and were rounded up by his neighbors. Use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering alone. Factories established during the Industrial Revolution introduced mass-produced goods and needed to sell their products to a wider market – to customers previously familiar only with locally produced goods. It quickly became apparent that a generic package of soap had difficulty competing with familiar, local products. The packaged-goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public could place just as much trust in the non-local product. Pears Soap, Campbell’s soup, soft drink Coca-Cola, Juicy Fruit chewing gum, Aunt Jemima pancake mix, and Quaker Oats oatmeal were among the first products to be “branded” in an effort to increase the consumer’s familiarity with their merits. Other brands which date from that era, such as Uncle Ben’s rice and Kellogg’s breakfast cereal, furnish illustrations of the trend. Around 1900, James Walter Thompson published a house ad explaining trademark advertising. This was an early commercial explanation of what we now know as branding. Companies soon adopted slogans, mascots, and jingles that began to appear on radio and early television. By the 1940s, manufacturers began to recognize the way in which consumers were developing relationships with their brands in a social/psychological/anthropological sense. Manufacturers quickly learned to build their brands’ identity and personality such as youthfulness, fun or luxury. This began the practice we now know as “branding” today, where the consumers buy “the brand” instead of the product. This trend continued to the 1980s, and is now quantified in concepts such as brand value and brand equity. Naomi Klein has described this development as “brand equity mania”. In 1988, for example, Philip Morris purchased Kraft for six times what the company was worth on paper; it was felt[by whom?] that what they really purchased was its brand name. April 2, 1993, or Marlboro Friday, is often considered the “death” of the brand – the day Philip Morris declared that they were cutting the price of Marlboro cigarettes by 20% in order to compete with bargain cigarettes. Marlboro cigarettes were noted[by whom?] at the time for their heavy advertising campaigns and well-nuanced brand image. In response to the announcement, Wall Street stocks nose-dived for a large number of branded companies: Heinz, Coca Cola, Quaker Oats, PepsiCo, Tide, Lysol. Many thought the event signalled the beginning of a trend towards “brand blindness” (Klein 13), questioning the power of “brand value”.